systemd-boot - LUKS - btrfs

Manjaro UEFI using systemd-boot, LUKS and btrfs

The following is my notes while reading and the changes I made to the subsequent installation to fit into a Manjaro system installation.

NOTE: Before you dive into btrfs - be sure to read the entire article - including the documentation linked at the end of this document.

Overview


  • UEFI using systemd-boot
  • LUKS encrypted root
  • btrfs with subvolumes
  • Sources is listed at the end of this document

You can boot from any Manjaro ISO - open a terminal - and follow this guide.

For a similar guide without LUKS read here

  • https://forum.manjaro.org/t/manjaro-uefi-systemd-boot-and-btrfs/116466?u=linux-aarhus

Assuming you know how to identify your disk devices and can replace the example device name /dev/sdy with the device for your system.

All commands written is assuming your are logged in as root. On Manjaro ISOs the root login is root:manjaro

General


Connect to your network and ensure your system clock is correct

# systemctl start systemd-timesyncd

Set a preferred mirror and branch then download databases

# pacman-mirrors -aU https://manjaro.moson.eu -Sunstable
# pacman -Syy

Partitioning and File System Creation


Partition

Clear the disk of any existing file systems using random pattern - as the partition will be encrypted this will disguise the partitions and data held on it. It will take some time to complete - hours if you are having a big storage device.

# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/sdy status=progress bs=10M

Use cdisk to create the boot partition and the main partition which will be encrypted

# cfdisk /dev/sdy
  1. boot
    • 512M
    • EFI system partition type
      1. root
    • remaining space
    • default type Linux file system

Set up the encryption container

# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sdy2
Are you sure? YES
Enter passphrase (twice)
# cryptsetup open /dev/sdy2 luks

Format

Format to FAT32 for the boot and btrfs for the root

# mkfs.vfat -F32 /dev/sdy1
# mkfs.btrfs /dev/mapper/luks

The author of the original guide has some reasonable suggestions which also matches the defaults used by Manjaro Architect.

  • / subvolume
  • /home subvolume in case a root snapshot needs to be restored
  • /var changes often so also a separate subvolume.
  • noatime and nodiratime are used to prevent a write every time a file or directory is accessed (not great for a COW filesystem like btrfs).
  • zstd is used for compression because it's fast and provides compression similar to xz.
  • Don't use discard. Issue manual trim commands with fstrim or enable the fstrim.timer.

    Subvolumes

    # mount /dev/mapper/luks /mnt
    # btrfs subvolume create /mnt/@
    # btrfs subvolume create /mnt/@home
    # btrfs subvolume create /mnt/@var
    # umount /mnt
    # mount -o subvol=@,ssd,compress=zstd,noatime,nodiratime /dev/mapper/luks /mnt
    # mkdir /mnt/{boot,home,var}
    # mount -o subvol=@home,ssd,compress=zstd,noatime,nodiratime /dev/mapper/luks /mnt/home
    # mount -o subvol=@var,ssd,compress=zstd,noatime,nodiratime /dev/mapper/luks /mnt/var
    # mount /dev/sdy1 /mnt/boot

    Installation


    Install base Manjaro

    # basestrap /mnt base btrfs-progs sudo manjaro-zsh-config intel-ucode networkmanager linux54 nano vim systemd-boot-manager mkinitcpio

    Generate fstab

    Generate fstab and verify the content

    # fstabgen -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
    # cat /mnt/etc/fstab

    Configure system


    Chroot

    # manjaro-chroot /mnt /bin/zsh

    Hostname

    # echo manjaro > /etc/hostname

    Edit /etc/hosts

    # nano /etc/hosts
    127.0.0.1   localhost
    ::1     localhost
    127.0.1.1   manjaro.localdomain   manjaro

    Shell

    # chsh -s /bin/zsh

    Timezone

    Example for Denmark

    # ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Copenhagen /etc/localtime
    # hwclock --systohc

    Network Manager

    Enable network connection

    # systemctl enable NetworkManager

    Enable ntp client

    # systemctl enable systemd-timesyncd

    Locale

    Locale example for Danish locale

  • uncomment en_DK.UTF-8 and en_US.UTF-8

Save file and generate the messages

# nano /etc/locale.gen
# locale-gen

/etc/locale.conf

Locale.conf example for Denmark

# echo LANG=en_DK.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf

Root password

# passwd

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf

Add btrfs and encrypt and save

# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
HOOKS="base udev btrfs encrypt autodetect modconf block filesystems keyboard fsck"
# mkinitcpio -p linux54

systemd-boot

Install the boot loader

# bootctl --path=/boot install

Create Manjaro loaders

# sdboot-manage gen

Navigate to /boot/loader/entries and check the configurations sdboot-manage has created (there will be two).

:information_source: If you create the entries by hand please note

  • root=UUID= is the UUID of your LUKS container
  • cryptdevice=UUID= is the UUID of physical partition hosting your container
Default
title Manjaro Linux 5.4
linux /vmlinuz-5.4-x86_64
initrd /intel-ucode.img
initrd /initramfs-5.4-x86_64.img
options root=UUID=289ae676-7cbc-43a7-b4b7-e9cf325227c9 rw rootflags=subvol=/@ cryptdevice=UUID=9d336c58-0e8f-434d-b12a-b75663c4ad59
Fallback
title Manjaro Linux 5.4
linux /vmlinuz-5.4-x86_64
initrd /intel-ucode.img
initrd /initramfs-5.4-x86_64-fallback.img
options root=UUID=289ae676-7cbc-43a7-b4b7-e9cf325227c9 rw rootflags=subvol=/@ cryptdevice=UUID=9d336c58-0e8f-434d-b12a-b75663c4ad59:luks

Base config done

# exit
# umount -R /mnt
# reboot

Customizing


You should have a fully functioning Manjaro system. What comes next is your personal preferences. The example is a very basic vanilla Gnome desktop.

Gnome desktop

# pacman -Syu xorg-server xorg-server-common xorg-xinit xorg-drivers accountsservice gnome-keyring gnome-session gnome-shell gnome-desktop gnome-terminal gdm

Add a user and set password

# useradd -mUG lp,network,power,sys,wheel -s /bin/zsh newuser
# passwd newuser

Admin user

Add user to wheel group

# visudo
Uncomment and save
%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL

Enable displaymanager

# systemctl enable gdm

Reboot

# reboot

Trouble shooting


If something went wrong and you need to get back in from the live image:

# cryptsetup open /dev/sdy2 luks
# mount -o subvol=@,ssd /dev/mapper/luks /mnt
# mount -o subvol=@home,ssd /dev/mapper/luks /mnt/home
# mount -o subvol=@var,ssd /dev/mapper/luks /mnt/var
# mount /dev/sdy1 /mnt/boot
# manjaro-chroot /mnt /bin/zsh

drive preparation resource

  • https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Dm-crypt/Drive_preparation

btrfs resources


  • https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Status
  • https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/FAQ#Is_btrfs_stable.3F
  • https://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Getting_started
  • https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Btrfs
  • https://forum.manjaro.org/t/btrfs-tips-and-tricks/71186?u=linux-aarhus

Credits


  • https://austinmorlan.com/posts/arch_linux_install/

Credits in original source

  • https://fogelholk.io/installing-arch-with-lvm-on-luks-and-btrfs/
  • https://flypenguin.de/2018/01/20/arch-full-disk-encryption-btrfs-on-efi-systems/
  • https://wiki.archlinux.org/